Yes. The United States Constitution, which restricts governmental but not private actors from arbitrarily interfering with individual rights, prohibits the Government from unreasonably infringing on workers' rights relating to privacy and job security. With respect to workplace privacy, the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prohibits unreasonable "searches." In l989, the Supreme Court, considering the issue of workplace drug testing for the fist time, concluded that a public employer taking of blood, urine, or breath specimen for the purpose of alcohol and other drug testing, (or testing conducted by a private employer at the request of the Government), constitutes a search under the Fourth Amendment because it implicates significant privacy concerns. The Court further held that the determination of whether such testing is "reasonable" and therefore constitutionally valid, requires a balancing of the degree of invasion on the individual's privacy interest against the promotion of the employer's legitimate interests.
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