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C

  • Common share

    The basic share in a company. Typically, common shares have voting rights and a pro rata right to any dividends declared. They differ from preferred shares which, by definition, carry some kind of right or privilege above the common shares (eg. first to receive any dividends).
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  • Communications Law

    the area of law focusing on the technology of the transmission of information.
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  • Company

    A legal entity, allowed by legislation, which permits a group of people, as shareholders, to create an organization, which can then focus on persuing set objectives, and empowered with legal rights which are usually only reserved for individuals, such as to sue and be sued, own property, hire employees or loan and borrow money. Also known as a "corporation." The primary advantage of a company structure is that it provides the shareholders with a right to participate in the profits (by dividends) without any personal liability (the company absorbs the entire liability of the business).
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  • Comparative negligence

    A principle of tort law which looks at the negligence of the victim and which may lead to either a reduction of the award against the defendant, proportionate to the contribution of the victim's negligence, or which may even prevent an award altogether if the victim's negligence, when compared with the defendant, is equal to or greater in terms or contributing to the situation which caused the injury or damage
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  • Complaint

    written document filed in court in which the person initiating the action names the persons, allegations, and relief sought
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  • Computer & Technology Law

    the area of law dealing with the scientific technology involving the production or use of devices especially in the fields of electronics and computers. Computers can be defined as programmable electronic devices that can store, retrieve, and process data
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  • Condemnation/Eminent Domain

    the area of law that deals with the right of the government to take property from a private owner for public use by virtue of the superior dominion of its sovereignty over all lands within its jurisdiction.
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  • Condition precedent

    A contractual condition that suspends the coming into effect of a contract unless or until a certain event takes place. Many residential real estate contracts have a condition precedent which states that the contract is not binding until and unless the property is subjected to an professional inspection, the results of which are satisfactory to the purchaser.
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  • Condition subsequent

    A condition in a contract that causes the contract to become invalid if a certain event occurs. This is different from a condition precedent. The happening of a condition subsequent may invalidate a contract which is, until that moment, fully valid and binding. In the case of a condition precedent, no binding contract exists until the condition occurs.
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  • Condonation

    Divorces can be obtained by showing a fault of the other spouse, such as adultery or cruelty. But a court will refuse to grant a divorce based on these grounds if there has been "condonation", which is the obvious or implied forgiveness of the fault. For example, if the "injured" spouse resumes cohabitation with the "guilty" spouse after being informed of the adultery, and for a long period or time, the "injured" spouse may be barred from divorce on the grounds of adultery because of "condonation".
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  • Consensus

    A result achieved through negotiation whereby a hybrid solution is arrived at between parties to an issue, dispute or disagreement, comprising typically of concessions made by all parties, and to which all parties then subscribe unanimously as an acceptable resolution to the issue or disagreement.
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  • Consensus ad idem

    Latin term meaning an agreement, a meeting of the minds between the parties where all understand the committments made by each. This is a basic requirement for each contract.
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  • Consent Agreement

    voluntary written admission of paternity or responsibility for support
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  • Consideration

    Under common law, there can be no binding contract without consideration, which was defined in an 1875 English decision as "some right, interest, profit or benefit accruing to the one party, or some forbearance, detriment, loss or responsibility given, suffered or undertaken by the other". Common law did not want to allow gratuitous offers, those made without anything offered in exchange (such as gifts), to be given the protection of contract law. So they added the criteria of consideration. Consideration is not required in contracts made in civil law systems and many common law states have adopted laws which remove consideration as a prerequisite of a valid contract.
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  • Conspiracy

    An agreement between two or more persons to commit a criminal act. Those forming the conspiracy are called conspirators.
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  • Constitution

    The basic law or laws of a nation or a state which sets out how that state will be organized by deciding the powers and authorities of government between different political units, and by stating and the basic principles of society. Constitutions are not necessarily written and may be based on aged customs and conventions, as is the case in England and New Zealand (the USA, Canada and Australia all have written constitutions).
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  • Constitutional Law

    the area of statutory and case law that is based on, concerns, or interprets a constitution.
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  • Construction

    The legal process of interpreting a phrase or document; of trying to find it's meaning. Whether it be a contract or a statute, there are times when a phrase may be unclear or of several meanings. Then, either lawyers or judges must attempt to interpret or "construct" the probable aim and purpose of the phrase, by extrapolating from other parts of the document or, in the case of statutes, referring to a interpretation law which gives legal construction guidelines. Generally, there are two types of construction methods: literal (strict) or liberal.
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  • Construction Law

    the area of law focusing on the construction industry.
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  • Constructive trust

    A trust which a court declares or imposes onto participants of very specific circumstances such as those giving rise to an action for unjust enrichment, and notwithstanding the lack of any willing settlor to declare the trust (contrast with express trusts and resulting trusts).
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