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In some cases, yes, your employer may be able to discipline you for comments made online, even outside of business hours. While negative postings about your employer may be legal and permissible under the First Amendment, your employer may be able to discipline and even discharge you if you are openly critical about your employer. Many states consider most employees to be at will, which means that you can be discharged for any reason other than an illegally discriminatory reason. Another reason for discipline or discharge by your employer in this situation is if you divulge confidential information from your workplace in your web page or blog. If an employer finds that you have violated a stated workplace policy regarding confidentiality of information, you are likely to be subject to discipline or discharge.
Have you been discriminated against by a potential or current employer -- as a job applicant or current employee? To best protect your legal rights you should discuss your situation with an employment lawyer. Meet with a local employment for employees attorney sooner rather than later to protect your rights.